Raspberry Pi - Motion Sensor - Piezo Buzzer

This tutorial instructs you how to use Raspberry Pi and HC-SR501 motion sensor to control piezo buzzer. In detail:

This can be applied in an automation process that triggers actions upon detecting human presence.

Hardware Preparation

1×Raspberry Pi 4 Model B
1×HC-SR501 Motion Sensor
1×Piezo Buzzer
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) Screw Terminal Adapter for Raspberry Pi

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
Disclosure: Some of the links provided in this section are Amazon affiliate links. We may receive a commission for any purchases made through these links at no additional cost to you. We appreciate your support.

Overview of Piezo Buzzer and Motion Sensor

If you are unfamiliar with piezo buzzer and motion sensor (including pinout, how it works, and how to program), the following tutorials can help:

Wiring Diagram

The wiring diagram between Raspberry Pi and Motion Sensor Piezo Buzzer

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

Initial Setting

Time Delay AdjusterScrew it in anti-clockwise direction fully.
Detection Range AdjusterScrew it in clockwise direction fully.
Repeat Trigger SelectorPut jumper as shown on the image.
arduino motion sensor initial setting

Raspberry Pi Code - Simple Sound

In this section, we'll use a piezo buzzer with Raspberry Pi to generate a simple sound whenever movement is detected.

Detailed Instructions

  • Make sure you have Raspbian or any other Raspberry Pi compatible operating system installed on your Pi.
  • Make sure your Raspberry Pi is connected to the same local network as your PC.
  • Make sure your Raspberry Pi is connected to the internet if you need to install some libraries.
  • If this is the first time you use Raspberry Pi, See how to set up the Raspberry Pi
  • Connect your PC to the Raspberry Pi via SSH using the built-in SSH client on Linux and macOS or PuTTY on Windows. See to how connect your PC to Raspberry Pi via SSH.
  • Make sure you have the RPi.GPIO library installed. If not, install it using the following command:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install python3-rpi.gpio
  • Create a Python script file motion_sensor_buzzer.py and add the following code:
# This Raspberry Pi code was developed by newbiely.com # This Raspberry Pi code is made available for public use without any restriction # For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: # https://newbiely.com/tutorials/raspberry-pi/raspberry-pi-motion-sensor-piezo-buzzer import RPi.GPIO as GPIO import time # Set the GPIO mode (BCM or BOARD) GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM) # Define the GPIO pin number to which the buzzer is connected BUZZER_PIN = 16 # Define the GPIO pin number to which the motion sensor is connected MOTION_SENSOR_PIN = 14 # Set up the GPIO pins GPIO.setup(MOTION_SENSOR_PIN, GPIO.IN, pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP) # Input with pull-up resistor GPIO.setup(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.OUT) # Output try: while True: motion_state = GPIO.input(MOTION_SENSOR_PIN) if motion_state == GPIO.HIGH: print("The movement is detected") GPIO.output(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.HIGH) # Turn the buzzer on else: print("The movement is stopped") GPIO.output(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.LOW) # Turn the buzzer off # Add a slight delay to debounce the motion sensor (optional) time.sleep(0.1) # Allow the user to stop the buzzer by pressing Ctrl+C except KeyboardInterrupt: GPIO.output(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.LOW) # Turn off the buzzer GPIO.cleanup()
  • Save the file and run the Python script by executing the following command in the terminal:
python3 motion_sensor_buzzer.py
  • Wave your hand in front of the sensor.
  • Listen to the sound coming from the piezo buzzer.

The script runs in an infinite loop continuously until you press Ctrl + C in the terminal.

Code Explanation

Check out the line-by-line explanation contained in the comments of the source code!

Raspberry Pi plays the melody of the song

In this section, we will make the Raspberry Pi trigger the piezo buzzer to play the song "Jingle Bells" when detecting movement.

Detailed Instructions

  • Create a Python script file motion_sensor_buzzer_Jingle_Bells.py and add the following code:
# This Raspberry Pi code was developed by newbiely.com # This Raspberry Pi code is made available for public use without any restriction # For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: # https://newbiely.com/tutorials/raspberry-pi/raspberry-pi-motion-sensor-piezo-buzzer import RPi.GPIO as GPIO import time # Set the GPIO mode (BCM or BOARD) GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM) # Define the GPIO pin number to which the buzzer is connected BUZZER_PIN = 16 # Define the GPIO pin number to which the motion sensor is connected MOTION_SENSOR_PIN = 14 # Set up the GPIO pins GPIO.setup(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.OUT) GPIO.setup(MOTION_SENSOR_PIN, GPIO.IN, pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP) # Constants for note names and their corresponding frequencies C4 = 261 D4 = 293 E4 = 329 F4 = 349 G4 = 392 A4 = 440 B4 = 493 # Dictionary to map numeric values to note names note_names = { C4: "C4", D4: "D4", E4: "E4", F4: "F4", G4: "G4", A4: "A4", B4: "B4", } # List of notes in the "Jingle Bells" melody melody = [ E4, E4, E4, E4, E4, E4, E4, G4, C4, D4, E4, F4, F4, F4, F4, F4, E4, E4, E4, E4, E4, D4, D4, E4, D4, G4 ] # List of note durations (in milliseconds) note_durations = [ 200, 200, 400, 200, 200, 400, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 400, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 200, 400, 200, 200 ] # Pause duration between notes (in milliseconds) pause_duration = 300 def play_tone(pin, frequency, duration): # Calculate the period based on the frequency period = 1.0 / frequency # Calculate the time for half of the period half_period = period / 2.0 # Calculate the number of cycles for the given duration cycles = int(duration / period) for _ in range(cycles): # Set the GPIO pin to HIGH GPIO.output(pin, GPIO.HIGH) # Wait for half of the period time.sleep(half_period) # Set the GPIO pin to LOW GPIO.output(pin, GPIO.LOW) # Wait for the other half of the period time.sleep(half_period) def play_jingle_bells(): for i in range(len(melody)): note_duration = note_durations[i] / 1000.0 note_freq = melody[i] note_name = note_names.get(note_freq, "Pause") print(f"Playing {note_name} (Frequency: {note_freq} Hz) for {note_duration} seconds") play_tone(BUZZER_PIN, note_freq, note_duration) time.sleep(pause_duration / 1000.0) GPIO.output(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.LOW) try: while True: motion_state = GPIO.input(MOTION_SENSOR_PIN) if motion_state == GPIO.HIGH: play_jingle_bells() # Allow the user to stop the buzzer by pressing Ctrl+C except KeyboardInterrupt: GPIO.output(BUZZER_PIN, GPIO.LOW) GPIO.cleanup()
  • Save the file and run the Python script by executing the following command in the terminal:
python3 motion_sensor_buzzer_Jingle_Bells.py
  • Move your hand in front of the sensor.
  • Listen to the tune that the piezo buzzer plays.

Code Explanation

Check out the line-by-line explanation contained in the comments of the source code!

Video Tutorial