Raspberry Pi - Motion Sensor - Relay

This tutorial instructs you how to use Raspberry Pi and motion sensor to control relay. In detail:

By connecting a relay to a light bulb, LED strip, motor, or actuator... We can then utilize Raspberry Pi and the motion sensor to control the light bulb, LED strip, motor, or actuator...

This can be applied in an automation process that triggers actions upon detecting human presence.

Hardware Preparation

1×Raspberry Pi 4 Model B
1×HC-SR501 Motion Sensor
1×Relay
1×(Optional) Solenoid Lock
1×12V Power Adapter
1×DC Power Jack
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) Screw Terminal Adapter for Raspberry Pi

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
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Overview of Relay and Motion Sensor

If you are unfamiliar with relay and motion sensor (including pinout, functionality, and programming), check out the following tutorials:

Wiring Diagram

The wiring diagram between Raspberry Pi and Motion Sensor Relay

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

Initial Setting

Time Delay AdjusterScrew it in anti-clockwise direction fully.
Detection Range AdjusterScrew it in clockwise direction fully.
Repeat Trigger SelectorPut jumper as shown on the image.
arduino motion sensor initial setting

Raspberry Pi Code

Detailed Instructions

  • Make sure you have Raspbian or any other Raspberry Pi compatible operating system installed on your Pi.
  • Make sure your Raspberry Pi is connected to the same local network as your PC.
  • Make sure your Raspberry Pi is connected to the internet if you need to install some libraries.
  • If this is the first time you use Raspberry Pi, See how to set up the Raspberry Pi
  • Connect your PC to the Raspberry Pi via SSH using the built-in SSH client on Linux and macOS or PuTTY on Windows. See to how connect your PC to Raspberry Pi via SSH.
  • Make sure you have the RPi.GPIO library installed. If not, install it using the following command:
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install python3-rpi.gpio
  • Create a Python script file motion_sensor_relay.py and add the following code:
# This Raspberry Pi code was developed by newbiely.com # This Raspberry Pi code is made available for public use without any restriction # For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: # https://newbiely.com/tutorials/raspberry-pi/raspberry-pi-motion-sensor-relay import RPi.GPIO as GPIO # Set the GPIO mode (BCM or BOARD) GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM) # Define the GPIO pin number to which the relay is connected RELAY_PIN = 12 # Define the GPIO pin number to which the motion sensor is connected MOTION_SENSOR_PIN = 14 # Set up the GPIO pins GPIO.setup(MOTION_SENSOR_PIN, GPIO.IN, pull_up_down=GPIO.PUD_UP) # Input with pull-up resistor GPIO.setup(RELAY_PIN, GPIO.OUT) # Output try: while True: motion_state = GPIO.input(MOTION_SENSOR_PIN) if motion_state == GPIO.HIGH: print("The movement is detected") GPIO.output(RELAY_PIN, GPIO.HIGH) # Turn the relay on else: print("The movement is stopped") GPIO.output(RELAY_PIN, GPIO.LOW) # Turn the relay off except KeyboardInterrupt: GPIO.output(RELAY_PIN, GPIO.LOW) # Turn off the relay GPIO.cleanup()
  • Save the file and run the Python script by executing the following command in the terminal:
python3 motion_sensor_relay.py
  • Move your hand in front of the sensor.
  • Check the relay state, you will see that the relay is turned on when the movement is detected

The script runs in an infinite loop continuously until you press Ctrl + C in the terminal.

Code Explanation

Check out the line-by-line explanation contained in the comments of the source code!

Video Tutorial