Arduino Nano ESP32 - Potentiometer Servo Motor

This tutorial instructs you how to use Arduino Nano ESP32 to control the angle of a servo motor based on the input value from a potentiometer. In detail, we will learn:

Hardware Preparation

1×Arduino Nano ESP32
1×USB Cable Type-C
1×Servo Motor
1×Potentiometer
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) 5V Power Adapter for Arduino Nano ESP32
1×(Recommended) Screw Terminal Adapter for Arduino Nano

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
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Overview of Servo Motor and Potentiometer

If you are unfamiliar with servo motors and potentiometers, including pinout, functioning, and programming, the following tutorials will be helpful:

Wiring Diagram

The wiring diagram between Arduino Nano ESP32 and Servo Motor Potentiometer

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

How To Program

  • Read the value from the potentiometer (ranging from 0 to 1023)
int analog_value = analogRead(A3);
  • Convert it it to an angle in the range of 0 to 180.
int angle = map(analog_value, 0, 1023, 0, 180);
  • Control the servo to the specified angle.
servo.write(angle);

Arduino Nano ESP32 Code

/* * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano-esp32/arduino-nano-esp32-potentiometer-servo-motor */ #include <Servo.h> #define PIN_POTENTIOMETER A3 // The Arduino Nano ESP32 pin connected to potentiometer #define PIN_SERVO D2 // The Arduino Nano ESP32 pin connected to servo motor Servo servo; // create servo object to control a servo void setup() { // initialize serial communication at 9600 bits per second: Serial.begin(9600); servo.attach(PIN_SERVO); // attaches the Arduino Nano ESP32 pin to the servo object } void loop() { // reads the value of the potentiometer (value between 0 and 4095) int analogValue = analogRead(PIN_POTENTIOMETER); // scales it to use it with the servo (value between 0 and 180) int angle = map(analogValue, 0, 4095, 0, 180); // sets the servo position according to the scaled value servo.write(angle); // print out the value Serial.print("Analog value: "); Serial.print(analogValue); Serial.print(" => Angle: "); Serial.println(angle); delay(100); }

Detailed Instructions

  • If you are new to Arduino Nano ESP32, refer to the tutorial on how to set up the environment for Arduino Nano ESP32 in the Arduino IDE.
  • Wire the components as shown in the diagram.
  • Connect the Arduino Nano ESP32 board to your computer using a USB cable.
  • Open Arduino IDE on your computer.
  • Choose the correct Arduino Nano ESP32 board, such as (e.g. NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module)), and its respective COM port.
  • Connect your Arduino Nano ESP32 to your computer using a USB cable.
  • Launch the Arduino IDE, select the appropriate board and port.
  • Copy the code above and open it in the Arduino IDE.
  • Click the Upload button in the Arduino IDE to transfer the code to the Arduino Nano ESP32.
Arduino IDE Upload Code
  • Open the Serial Monitor
  • Turn the potentiometer
  • Check out the servo motor's rotation
  • View the result in the Serial Monitor
COM6
Send
Analog: 0, Angle: 0 Analog: 85, Angle: 14 Analog: 201, Angle: 35 Analog: 286, Angle: 50 Analog: 370, Angle: 65 Analog: 444, Angle: 78 Analog: 521, Angle: 91 Analog: 608, Angle: 106 Analog: 690, Angle: 121 Analog: 793, Angle: 139 Analog: 907, Angle: 159 Analog: 1023, Angle: 180 Analog: 1023, Angle: 180
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

Code Explanation

Check out the line-by-line explanation contained in the comments of the source code!

Video Tutorial