Arduino Nano ESP32 - DIP Switch

In electronics, DIP (Dual In-line Package) switches find widespread use for configuration tasks, such as device addresses, communication settings, security codes. This tutorial will explore how to use the DIP switch with Arduino Nano ESP32. Specifically, we'll cover:

Arduino Nano ESP32 with DIP Switch

Hardware Preparation

1×Arduino Nano ESP32
1×USB Cable Type-C
1×DIP Switch
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) 9V Power Adapter for Arduino Nano ESP32
1×(Recommended) Screw Terminal Adapter for Arduino Nano

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
Disclosure: Some of the links provided in this section are Amazon affiliate links. We may receive a commission for any purchases made through these links at no additional cost to you. We appreciate your support.

Overview of DIP Switch

DIP switches serve as essential tools for configuring devices, enabling users to adjust parameters like device address, communication settings, security codes, operational modes, and system preferences across various industries and applications.

A DIP switch is comprised of multiple small slide switches bundled together, with each switch referred to as a "position". These switches are available in different types based on the number of positions they offer. For instance, there are 2-position, 4-position, 5-position, 6-position, 8-position, and 10-position DIP switches.

Each position on a DIP switch represents a configurable bit of a number. By toggling these positions between ON and OFF, users can set the desired numeric value they wish to configure.

Pinout

DIP Switch Pinout
image source: diyables.io

A DIP switch is made up of two rows of pins, where the number of pins in each row matches the number of switch positions available. For instance, a 4-position DIP switch has a total of 8 pins, evenly divided with 4 pins on each side. Inside the DIP switch setup, each pair of opposite pins represents a slide switch. Importantly, there's no need to differentiate between pins on the two sides as they can be used interchangeably.

How It Works

In DIP switches, when a switch is in the ON position, it indicates that the switch is engaged or closed. This implies that there is an electrical connection established, enabling the flow of current through the switch.

Conversely, when a switch is in the OFF position, it signifies that the switch is disengaged or open. In this state, the electrical connection is severed, preventing the flow of current through the switch.

To clarify:

  • ON position: Establishes a closed circuit, allowing current to pass through.
  • OFF position: Creates an open circuit, blocking the flow of current.

When one side of a switch is connected to ground (GND) and the other side to an Arduino Nano ESP32 pin, and the Arduino Nano ESP32 pin is configured as a pull-up digital input, the table below illustrates the relationship between the switch position and the values read from the Arduino Nano ESP32:

DIP switch position Binary representation Circuit state Arduino Nano ESP32 pin state
ON 1 CLOSED LOW
OFF 0 OPEN HIGH

In the next parts, we will use 4-position DIP switch for example. You can easily to adapt for 2-position DIP switches, 3-position DIP switches, 5-position DIP switches, 6-position DIP switches, 8-position DIP switches, and 10-position DIP switches...

Wiring Diagram

The wiring diagram between Arduino Nano ESP32 and DIP switch

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

Arduino Nano ESP32 Code - DIP Switch

We will learn through two pieces of code:

  • Reading the ON/OFF state of individual position on the DIP switch.
  • Encoding the positions into a number.

Arduino Nano ESP32 code - Reading the ON/OFF state of the DIP switch

/* * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano-esp32/arduino-nano-esp32-dip-switch */ #define POSITION_NUM 4 #define ON LOW #define OFF HIGH // define the Arduino Nano ESP32 pins connected to the dip switch const int SWITCH_PINS[] = { D4, D5, D6, D7 }; void setup() { // initialize serial communication Serial.begin(9600); // set the dip switch pins as inputs with pull-up resistors enabled for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) pinMode(SWITCH_PINS[i], INPUT_PULLUP); } void loop() { // Read the state of each switch position for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) { Serial.print("position "); Serial.print(i + 1); Serial.print(": "); int state = digitalRead(SWITCH_PINS[i]); if (state == ON) Serial.println("ON "); else Serial.println("OFF "); } Serial.println(); // add a delay to prevent rapid readings delay(500); }

Detailed Instructions

To get started with Arduino Nano ESP32, follow these steps:

  • If you are new to Arduino Nano ESP32, refer to the tutorial on how to set up the environment for Arduino Nano ESP32 in the Arduino IDE.
  • Wire the components according to the provided diagram.
  • Connect the Arduino Nano ESP32 board to your computer using a USB cable.
  • Launch the Arduino IDE on your computer.
  • Select the Arduino Nano ESP32) board and its corresponding COM port.
  • Do wiring as above wiring diagram
  • Connect Arduino Nano ESP32 to PC via USB cable
  • Open Arduino IDE
  • Select the right board and port
  • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to Arduino Nano ESP32
  • Switch each position on the DIP Switch to ON one by one.
  • See the result on Serial Monitor.
COM6
Send
position 1: OFF position 2: OFF position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: OFF position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: ON position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: ON position 4: ON
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Arduino Nano ESP32 code - Encoding the states of DIP switch into a number

/* * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano-esp32/arduino-nano-esp32-dip-switch */ #define POSITION_NUM 4 #define ON LOW #define OFF HIGH // define the Arduino Nano ESP32 pins connected to the dip switch const int SWITCH_PINS[] = { D4, D5, D6, D7 }; void setup() { // Initialize serial communication Serial.begin(9600); // Set the DIP switch pins as inputs with pull-up resistors enabled for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) pinMode(SWITCH_PINS[i], INPUT_PULLUP); } void loop() { int encoded_state = 0; for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) { int state = digitalRead(SWITCH_PINS[i]); if (state == ON) encoded_state |= 1 << (POSITION_NUM - i - 1); } Serial.print("encoded state: "); Serial.println(encoded_state); // add a delay to prevent rapid readings delay(500); }

Detailed Instructions

To get started with Arduino Nano ESP32, follow these steps:

  • If you are new to Arduino Nano ESP32, refer to the tutorial on how to set up the environment for Arduino Nano ESP32 in the Arduino IDE.
  • Wire the components according to the provided diagram.
  • Connect the Arduino Nano ESP32 board to your computer using a USB cable.
  • Launch the Arduino IDE on your computer.
  • Select the Arduino Nano ESP32) board and its corresponding COM port.
  • Upload the above code to Arduino Nano ESP32
  • Switch each position on the DIP switch to ON one by one.
  • See the result on Serial Monitor, it look like below.
COM6
Send
encoded state: 0 encoded state: 1 encoded state: 2 encoded state: 3 encoded state: 4 encoded state: 5 encoded state: 6 encoded state: 7 encoded state: 8 encoded state: 9 encoded state: 10 encoded state: 11 encoded state: 12 encoded state: 13 encoded state: 14 encoded state: 15
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9600 baud  
Newline  

Please note that the value depends on positions of each slide switches. The below table shows the mapping between ON/OFF position and the integer value for 4-position DIP switch:

Position-1Position-2Position-3Position-4Binary ValueDecimal Value
OFF OFF OFF OFF 0000 0
OFF OFF OFF ON 0001 1
OFF OFF ON OFF 0010 2
OFF OFF ON ON 0011 3
OFF ON OFF OFF 0100 4
OFF ON OFF ON 0101 5
OFF ON ON OFF 0110 6
OFF ON ON ON 0111 7
ON OFF OFF OFF 1000 8
ON OFF OFF ON 1001 9
ON OFF ON OFF 1010 10
ON OFF ON ON 1011 11
ON ON OFF OFF 1100 12
ON ON OFF ON 1101 13
ON ON ON OFF 1110 14
ON ON ON ON 1111 15

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