Arduino Nano ESP32 - Control Servo Motor via Web

This tutorial instructs you on how to use the Arduino Nano ESP32 to control a servo motor via the web from a browser on your smartphone or PC. We'll use something called WebSocket to control the servo motor smoothly and dynamically through a graphical web user interface.

Arduino Nano ESP32 controls Servo Motor via Web

Now, why use WebSocket? Here's the idea:

Let's start!

Hardware Preparation

1×Arduino Nano ESP32
1×USB Cable Type-C
1×Servo Motor
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) DC Power Jack
1×(Recommended) Screw Terminal Adapter for Arduino Nano

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
Disclosure: Some of the links provided in this section are Amazon affiliate links. We may receive a commission for any purchases made through these links at no additional cost to you. We appreciate your support.

Overview of Servo Motor and WebSocket

We have specific tutorials about servo motor and WebSocket. Each tutorial contains detailed information and step-by-step instructions about hardware pinout, working principle, wiring connection to ESP32, Arduino Nano ESP32 code... Learn more about them at the following links:

How It Works

The Arduino Nano ESP32 code creates both a web server and a WebSocket Server. Here's how it works:

  • When you enter the ESP32's IP address in a web browser, it requests the webpage (User Interface) from the Arduino Nano ESP32.
  • The ESP32's web server responds by sending the webpage's content (HTML, CSS, JavaScript).
  • Your web browser then displays the webpage.
  • The JavaScript code within the webpage establishes a WebSocket connection to the WebSocket server on the Arduino Nano ESP32.
  • Once this WebSocket connection is established, if you turn the handle on the webpage, the JavaScript code quietly sends the angle value to the Arduino Nano ESP32 through this WebSocket connection in the background.
  • The WebSocket server on the ESP32, upon receiving the angle value, controls the servo motor accordingly.

In a nutshell, the WebSocket connection enables the smooth, real-time control of the servo motor angle.

Wiring Diagram between Servo Motor and Arduino Nano ESP32

  • When powering the Arduino Nano ESP32 board via USB port.
The wiring diagram between Arduino Nano ESP32 and Servo Motor

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

  • When powering the Arduino Nano ESP32 board via Vin pin.
The wiring diagram between Arduino Nano ESP32 and servo motor external power supply

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

※ NOTE THAT:

When powering the Arduino Nano ESP32 board via USB port, it should NOT power the servo motor via Vin pin VBUS pin. If you power the servo motor via this pin, your board may be get burned.

Arduino Nano ESP32 Code

The webpage's content (HTML, CSS, JavaScript) are stored separately on an index.h file. So, we will have two code files on Arduino IDE:

  • An .ino file that is Arduino Nano ESP32 code, which creates a web sever and WebSocket Server, and control servo motor
  • An .h file, which contains the webpage's content.

Detailed Instructions

To get started with Arduino Nano ESP32, follow these steps:

  • If you are new to Arduino Nano ESP32, refer to the tutorial on how to set up the environment for Arduino Nano ESP32 in the Arduino IDE.
  • Wire the components according to the provided diagram.
  • Connect the Arduino Nano ESP32 board to your computer using a USB cable.
  • Launch the Arduino IDE on your computer.
  • Select the Arduino Nano ESP32) board and its corresponding COM port.
  • Open the Library Manager by clicking on the Library Manager icon on the left navigation bar of Arduino IDE.
  • Search “ESPAsyncWebServer”, then find the ESPAsyncWebServer created by lacamera.
  • Click Install button to install ESPAsyncWebServer library.
Arduino Nano ESP32 ESPAsyncWebServer library
  • You will be asked to install the dependency. Click Install All button.
Arduino Nano ESP32 ESPAsyncWebServer dependencies library
  • Search “WebSockets”, then find the WebSockets created by Markus Sattler.
  • Click Install button to install WebSockets library.
Arduino Nano ESP32 WebSockets library
  • Type ServoESP32 on the search box, then look for the servo library by Jaroslav Paral. Please be aware that both version 1.1.1 and 1.1.0 are affected by bugs. Kindly choose a different version.
  • Click Install button to install servo motor library for Arduino Nano ESP32.
Arduino Nano ESP32 servo motor library
  • On Arduino IDE, create new sketch, Give it a name, for example, newbiely.com.ino
  • Copy the below code and open with Arduino IDE
/* * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano-esp32/arduino-nano-esp32-controls-servo-motor-via-web */ #include <Servo.h> #include <WiFi.h> #include <ESPAsyncWebServer.h> #include <WebSocketsServer.h> #include "index.h" #define SERVO_PIN D2 // The Arduino Nano ESP32 pin connected to servo motor Servo servo; const char* ssid = "YOUR_WIFI_SSID"; // CHANGE IT const char* password = "YOUR_WIFI_PASSWORD"; // CHANGE IT AsyncWebServer server(80); WebSocketsServer webSocket = WebSocketsServer(81); // WebSocket server on port 81 void webSocketEvent(uint8_t num, WStype_t type, uint8_t* payload, size_t length) { switch (type) { case WStype_DISCONNECTED: Serial.printf("[%u] Disconnected!\n", num); break; case WStype_CONNECTED: { IPAddress ip = webSocket.remoteIP(num); Serial.printf("[%u] Connected from %d.%d.%d.%d\n", num, ip[0], ip[1], ip[2], ip[3]); } break; case WStype_TEXT: //Serial.printf("[%u] Received text: %s\n", num, payload); String angle = String((char*)payload); int angle_value = angle.toInt(); Serial.println(angle_value); servo.write(angle_value); break; } } void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); servo.attach(SERVO_PIN); // attaches the servo on ESP32 pin // Connect to Wi-Fi WiFi.begin(ssid, password); while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) { delay(1000); Serial.println("Connecting to WiFi..."); } Serial.println("Connected to WiFi"); // Initialize WebSocket server webSocket.begin(); webSocket.onEvent(webSocketEvent); // Serve a basic HTML page with JavaScript to create the WebSocket connection server.on("/", HTTP_GET, [](AsyncWebServerRequest* request) { Serial.println("Web Server: received a web page request"); String html = HTML_CONTENT; // Use the HTML content from the index.h file request->send(200, "text/html", html); }); server.begin(); Serial.print("Arduino Nano ESP32 Web Server's IP address: "); Serial.println(WiFi.localIP()); } void loop() { webSocket.loop(); }
  • Create the index.h file On Arduino IDE by:
    • Either click on the button just below the serial monitor icon and choose New Tab, or use Ctrl+Shift+N keys.
    Arduino IDE 2 adds file
    • Give the file's name index.h and click OK button
    Arduino IDE 2 adds file index.h
    • Copy the below code and paste it to the index.h.
    /* * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano ESP32 code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano-esp32/arduino-nano-esp32-controls-servo-motor-via-web */ const char *HTML_CONTENT = R"=====( <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Arduino Nano ESP32 Controls Servo Motor via Web</title> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=0.7"> <style> body { text-align: center; } canvas { background-color: #ffffff; } </style> <script> var canvas_width = 401, canvas_height = 466; var pivot_x = 200, pivot_y = 200; var bracket_radius = 160, bracket_angle = 0; var bracket_img = new Image(); var click_state = 0; var last_angle = 0; var mouse_xyra = {x:0, y:0, r:0.0, a:0.0}; var ws; bracket_img.src = "https://esp32io.com/images/tutorial/servo-bracket.png"; function init() { var servo = document.getElementById("servo"); servo.width = canvas_width; servo.height = canvas_height; servo.style.backgroundImage = "url('https://esp32io.com/images/tutorial/servo-body.png')"; servo.style.backgroundPosition = "center"; servo.style.backgroundSize = "contain"; servo.addEventListener("touchstart", mouse_down); servo.addEventListener("touchend", mouse_up); servo.addEventListener("touchmove", mouse_move); servo.addEventListener("mousedown", mouse_down); servo.addEventListener("mouseup", mouse_up); servo.addEventListener("mousemove", mouse_move); var ctx = servo.getContext("2d"); ctx.translate(pivot_x, pivot_y); rotate_bracket(0); ws = new WebSocket("ws://" + window.location.host + ":81"); document.getElementById("ws_state").innerHTML = "CONNECTING"; ws.onopen = function(){ document.getElementById("ws_state").innerHTML = "CONNECTED" }; ws.onclose = function(){ document.getElementById("ws_state").innerHTML = "CLOSED"}; ws.onerror = function(){ alert("websocket error " + this.url) }; ws.onmessage = ws_onmessage; } function ws_onmessage(e_msg) { e_msg = e_msg || window.event; // MessageEvent alert("msg : " + e_msg.data); } function rotate_bracket(angle) { var servo = document.getElementById("servo"); var ctx = servo.getContext("2d"); ctx.clearRect(-pivot_x, -pivot_y, canvas_width, canvas_height); ctx.rotate(angle / 180 * Math.PI); ctx.drawImage(bracket_img, -pivot_x, -pivot_y); ctx.rotate(-angle / 180 * Math.PI); } function check_range_xyra(event, mouse_xyra) { var x, y, r, a, rc_x, rc_y, radian; var min_r, max_r, width; if(event.touches) { var touches = event.touches; x = (touches[0].pageX - touches[0].target.offsetLeft) - pivot_x; y = pivot_y - (touches[0].pageY - touches[0].target.offsetTop); min_r = 60; max_r = pivot_x; width = 40; } else { x = event.offsetX - pivot_x; y = pivot_y - event.offsetY; min_r = 60; max_r = bracket_radius; width = 20; } /* cartesian to polar coordinate conversion */ r = Math.sqrt(x * x + y * y); a = Math.atan2(y, x); mouse_xyra.x = x; mouse_xyra.y = y; mouse_xyra.r = r; mouse_xyra.a = a; radian = bracket_angle / 180 * Math.PI; /* rotate coordinate */ rc_x = x * Math.cos(radian) - y * Math.sin(radian); rc_y = x * Math.sin(radian) + y * Math.cos(radian); if((r < min_r) || (r > max_r)) return false; if((rc_y < -width) || (rc_y > width)) return false; return true; } function mouse_down() { if(event.touches && (event.touches.length > 1)) click_state = event.touches.length; if(click_state > 1) return; if(check_range_xyra(event, mouse_xyra)) { click_state = 1; last_angle = mouse_xyra.a / Math.PI * 180.0; } } function mouse_up() { click_state = 0; } function mouse_move() { var angle; if(event.touches && (event.touches.length > 1)) click_state = event.touches.length; if(click_state > 1) return; if(!click_state) return; if(!check_range_xyra(event, mouse_xyra)) { click_state = 0; return; } angle = mouse_xyra.a / Math.PI * 180.0; if((Math.abs(angle) > 90) && (angle * last_angle < 0)) { if(last_angle > 0) last_angle = -180; else last_angle = 180; } bracket_angle += (last_angle - angle); last_angle = angle; if(bracket_angle > 90) bracket_angle = 90; if(bracket_angle < -90) bracket_angle = -90; rotate_bracket(bracket_angle); if(ws.readyState == 1) ws.send(Math.floor(90 - bracket_angle) + "\r\n"); debug = document.getElementById("debug"); debug.innerHTML = Math.floor(90 - bracket_angle); event.preventDefault(); } window.onload = init; </script> </head> <body> <h2> Arduino Nano ESP32 - Servo Motor via Web<br> <canvas id="servo"></canvas> <p> WebSocket : <span id="ws_state" style="color:blue">null</span><br> Angle : <span id="debug" style="color:blue">90</span> </p> </h2> <div class="sponsor">Sponsored by <a href="https://amazon.com/diyables">DIYables</a></div> </body> </html> )=====";
    • Now you have the code in two files: newbiely.com.ino and index.h
    • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to Arduino Nano ESP32
    • Open the Serial Monitor
    • Check out the result on Serial Monitor.
    COM6
    Send
    Connecting to WiFi... Connected to WiFi Arduino Nano ESP32 Web Server's IP address IP address: 192.168.0.3
    Autoscroll Show timestamp
    Clear output
    9600 baud  
    Newline  
    • Take note of the IP address displayed, and enter this address into the address bar of a web browser on your smartphone or PC.
    • You will see the webpage it as below:
    Arduino Nano ESP32 controls servo motor via web browser
    • The JavaScript code of the webpage automatically creates the WebSocket connection to Arduino Nano ESP32.
    • Now you can control the servo motor's angle via the web interface.

    To save the memory of ESP32, the images of servo motor are NOT stored on Arduino Nano ESP32. Instead, they are stored on the internet, so, your phone or PC need to have internet connection to load images for the web control page.

    ※ NOTE THAT:

    • If you modify the HTML content in the index.h and does not touch anything in newbiely.com.ino file, when you compile and upload code to ESP32, Arduino IDE will not update the HTML content.
    • To make Arduino IDE update the HTML content in this case, make a change in the newbiely.com.ino file (e.g. adding empty line, add a comment....)

    Line-by-line Code Explanation

    The above Arduino Nano ESP32 code contains line-by-line explanation. Please read the comments in the code!