Arduino Nano - DIP Switch

Dual In-line Package (DIP) switches find frequent application in electronics for configuration tasks, like device addresses, communication settings, security codes, operation mode... This tutorial will delve into how to use the DIP switch with Arduino Nano. Specifically, we'll cover:

Arduino Nano with DIP Switch

Hardware Preparation

1×Arduino Nano
1×USB A to Mini-B USB cable
1×DIP Switch
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) 9V Power Adapter for Arduino Nano
1×(Recommended) Screw Terminal Adapter for Arduino Nano

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
Disclosure: Some of the links provided in this section are Amazon affiliate links. We may receive a commission for any purchases made through these links at no additional cost to you. We appreciate your support.

Overview of DIP Switch

DIP switches are primarily utilized for configuring devices, offering users the ability to set parameters like device addresses, communication settings, security codes, operation modes, and system preferences across various industries and applications.

A DIP switch comprises multiple small slide switches bundled together, with each slide switch referred to as a "position". DIP switches are available in various types determined by the number of positions they possess. For example, there are 2-position, 4-position, 5-position, 6-position, 8-position, and 10-position DIP switches.

Each position on a DIP switch represents a configurable bit of a number. By toggling the positions between ON and OFF, we can set the desired numerical value.

Pinout

DIP Switch Pinout
image source: diyables.io

A DIP switch is made up of two rows of pins, where the number of pins in each row matches the available switch positions. For instance, a 4-position DIP switch includes a total of 8 pins, evenly divided with 4 pins on each side. In the assembly of the DIP switch, every set of opposite pins forms a slide switch. It's important to note that differentiating between pins on the two sides is unnecessary as they can be interchanged.

How It Works

In DIP switches, when a switch is in the ON position, it indicates that the switch is engaged or closed. This means an electrical connection is established, enabling current to pass through the switch.

Conversely, when a switch is in the OFF position, it signifies that the switch is disengaged or open. In this state, the electrical connection is disrupted, preventing current from flowing through the switch.

To sum up:

  • ON position: Circuit closed, permitting current flow.
  • OFF position: Circuit open, blocking current flow.

When we connect one side of a switch to GND and the other side to an Arduino Nano pin, then configure the Arduino Nano pin as a pull-up digital input, the table below demonstrates the relationship between the switch position and the values read from the Arduino Nano:

DIP switch position Binary representation Circuit state Arduino Nano pin state
ON 1 CLOSED LOW
OFF 0 OPEN HIGH

In the next parts, we will use 4-position DIP switch for example. You can easily to adapt for 2-position DIP switches, 3-position DIP switches, 5-position DIP switches, 6-position DIP switches, 8-position DIP switches, and 10-position DIP switches...

Wiring Diagram

The wiring diagram between Arduino Nano and DIP switch

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

Arduino Nano Code - DIP Switch

We will learn through two pieces of code:

  • Reading the ON/OFF state of individual position on the DIP switch.
  • Encoding the positions into a number.

Arduino Nano code - Reading the ON/OFF state of the DIP switch

/* * This Arduino Nano code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano/arduino-nano-dip-switch */ #define POSITION_NUM 4 #define ON LOW #define OFF HIGH // define the Arduino Nano pins connected to the dip switch const int SWITCH_PINS[] = { 4, 5, 6, 7 }; void setup() { // initialize serial communication Serial.begin(9600); // set the dip switch pins as inputs with pull-up resistors enabled for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) pinMode(SWITCH_PINS[i], INPUT_PULLUP); } void loop() { // Read the state of each switch position for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) { Serial.print("position "); Serial.print(i + 1); Serial.print(": "); int state = digitalRead(SWITCH_PINS[i]); if (state == ON) Serial.println("ON "); else Serial.println("OFF "); } Serial.println(); // add a delay to prevent rapid readings delay(500); }

Detailed Instructions

  • Do wiring as above wiring diagram
  • Connect Arduino Nano to PC via USB cable
  • Open Arduino IDE
  • Select the right board and port
  • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to Arduino Nano
  • Switch each position on the DIP Switch to ON one by one.
  • See the result on Serial Monitor.
COM6
Send
position 1: OFF position 2: OFF position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: OFF position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: OFF position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: ON position 4: OFF position 1: ON position 2: ON position 3: ON position 4: ON
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

Arduino Nano code - Encoding the states of DIP switch into a number

/* * This Arduino Nano code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano/arduino-nano-dip-switch */ #define POSITION_NUM 4 #define ON LOW #define OFF HIGH // define the Arduino Nano pins connected to the dip switch const int SWITCH_PINS[] = { 4, 5, 6, 7 }; void setup() { // Initialize serial communication Serial.begin(9600); // Set the DIP switch pins as inputs with pull-up resistors enabled for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) pinMode(SWITCH_PINS[i], INPUT_PULLUP); } void loop() { int encoded_state = 0; for (int i = 0; i < POSITION_NUM; i++) { int state = digitalRead(SWITCH_PINS[i]); if (state == ON) encoded_state |= 1 << (POSITION_NUM - i - 1); } Serial.print("encoded state: "); Serial.println(encoded_state); // add a delay to prevent rapid readings delay(500); }

Detailed Instructions

  • Upload the above code to Arduino Nano
  • Switch each position on the DIP switch to ON one by one.
  • See the result on Serial Monitor, it look like below.
COM6
Send
encoded state: 0 encoded state: 1 encoded state: 2 encoded state: 3 encoded state: 4 encoded state: 5 encoded state: 6 encoded state: 7 encoded state: 8 encoded state: 9 encoded state: 10 encoded state: 11 encoded state: 12 encoded state: 13 encoded state: 14 encoded state: 15
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

Please note that the value depends on positions of each slide switches. The below table shows the mapping between ON/OFF position and the integer value for 4-position DIP switch:

Position-1Position-2Position-3Position-4Binary ValueDecimal Value
OFF OFF OFF OFF 0000 0
OFF OFF OFF ON 0001 1
OFF OFF ON OFF 0010 2
OFF OFF ON ON 0011 3
OFF ON OFF OFF 0100 4
OFF ON OFF ON 0101 5
OFF ON ON OFF 0110 6
OFF ON ON ON 0111 7
ON OFF OFF OFF 1000 8
ON OFF OFF ON 1001 9
ON OFF ON OFF 1010 10
ON OFF ON ON 1011 11
ON ON OFF OFF 1100 12
ON ON OFF ON 1101 13
ON ON ON OFF 1110 14
ON ON ON ON 1111 15

Video Tutorial

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