Arduino Nano - Piezo Buzzer

This tutorial instructs you how to use Arduino Nano to control the piezo buzzer. In detail, we will learn :

Hardware Preparation

1×Arduino Nano
1×USB A to Mini-B USB cable
1×Piezo Buzzer
1×Breadboard
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) 9V Power Adapter for Arduino Nano
1×(Recommended) Screw Terminal Adapter for Arduino Nano

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
Disclosure: Some of the links provided in this section are Amazon affiliate links. We may receive a commission for any purchases made through these links at no additional cost to you. We appreciate your support.

Overview of Piezo Buzzer

A Piezo Buzzer is used to produce sound, beeps, or even a tune.

Available in the market is a versatile 3V-24V active buzzer that functions as both a 3-5V active buzzer and a high-voltage buzzer (12V and beyond).

  • When directly connected to an Arduino pin, the buzzer produces a standard sound, making it ideal for applications such as sound indicators, such as keypad sounds.
  • Alternatively, when connected to a high voltage source through a relay, the buzzer emits a loud sound, making it suitable for warning signals.

The Piezo Buzzer Pinout

Piezo Buzzer typically has two pins:

  • The Negative (-) pin should be connected to GND (0V)
  • The Positive (+) pin receives the control signal from Arduino Nano (directly, or indirectly via relay)
Piezo Buzzer pinout

How Piezo Buzzer Works

See How Piezo Buzzer works

Wiring Diagram

The wiring diagram between Arduino Nano and Piezo Buzzer

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

How To Program For Piezo Buzzer

Thanks to the Arduino library, it is simple to play a melody. We are not required to understand how to generate a square wave. All we have to do is use two functions: tone() and noTone() from the library.

Arduino Nano Code

#include "pitches.h" #define BUZZER_PIN 2 // The Arduino Nano pin connected to the piezo buzzer's pin // notes in the melody: int melody[] = { NOTE_C4, NOTE_G3, NOTE_G3, NOTE_A3, NOTE_G3, 0, NOTE_B3, NOTE_C4 }; // note durations: 4 = quarter note, 8 = eighth note, etc.: int noteDurations[] = { 4, 8, 8, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4 }; void setup() { // iterate over the notes of the melody: for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < 8; thisNote++) { // to calculate the note duration, take one second divided by the note type. //e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc. int noteDuration = 1000 / noteDurations[thisNote]; tone(BUZZER_PIN, melody[thisNote], noteDuration); // to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them. // The note's duration + 30% seems to work well: int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30; delay(pauseBetweenNotes); // stop the tone playing: noTone(BUZZER_PIN); } } void loop() { // no need to repeat the melody. }

Detailed Instructions

  • Connect an Arduino Nano to a PC using a USB cable.
  • Open the Arduino IDE, select the appropriate board and port.
  • Copy the code and open it with the Arduino IDE.
  • Create the pitches.h file On Arduino IDE by:
    • Either click on the button just below the serial monitor icon and choose New Tab, or use Ctrl+Shift+N keys.
    Arduino IDE 2 adds file
    • Give file's name pitches.h and click OK button
    Arduino IDE 2 adds file pitches.h
    • Copy the below code and paste it to the created pitches.h file.
    /************************************************* * Public Constants *************************************************/ #define NOTE_B0 31 #define NOTE_C1 33 #define NOTE_CS1 35 #define NOTE_D1 37 #define NOTE_DS1 39 #define NOTE_E1 41 #define NOTE_F1 44 #define NOTE_FS1 46 #define NOTE_G1 49 #define NOTE_GS1 52 #define NOTE_A1 55 #define NOTE_AS1 58 #define NOTE_B1 62 #define NOTE_C2 65 #define NOTE_CS2 69 #define NOTE_D2 73 #define NOTE_DS2 78 #define NOTE_E2 82 #define NOTE_F2 87 #define NOTE_FS2 93 #define NOTE_G2 98 #define NOTE_GS2 104 #define NOTE_A2 110 #define NOTE_AS2 117 #define NOTE_B2 123 #define NOTE_C3 131 #define NOTE_CS3 139 #define NOTE_D3 147 #define NOTE_DS3 156 #define NOTE_E3 165 #define NOTE_F3 175 #define NOTE_FS3 185 #define NOTE_G3 196 #define NOTE_GS3 208 #define NOTE_A3 220 #define NOTE_AS3 233 #define NOTE_B3 247 #define NOTE_C4 262 #define NOTE_CS4 277 #define NOTE_D4 294 #define NOTE_DS4 311 #define NOTE_E4 330 #define NOTE_F4 349 #define NOTE_FS4 370 #define NOTE_G4 392 #define NOTE_GS4 415 #define NOTE_A4 440 #define NOTE_AS4 466 #define NOTE_B4 494 #define NOTE_C5 523 #define NOTE_CS5 554 #define NOTE_D5 587 #define NOTE_DS5 622 #define NOTE_E5 659 #define NOTE_F5 698 #define NOTE_FS5 740 #define NOTE_G5 784 #define NOTE_GS5 831 #define NOTE_A5 880 #define NOTE_AS5 932 #define NOTE_B5 988 #define NOTE_C6 1047 #define NOTE_CS6 1109 #define NOTE_D6 1175 #define NOTE_DS6 1245 #define NOTE_E6 1319 #define NOTE_F6 1397 #define NOTE_FS6 1480 #define NOTE_G6 1568 #define NOTE_GS6 1661 #define NOTE_A6 1760 #define NOTE_AS6 1865 #define NOTE_B6 1976 #define NOTE_C7 2093 #define NOTE_CS7 2217 #define NOTE_D7 2349 #define NOTE_DS7 2489 #define NOTE_E7 2637 #define NOTE_F7 2794 #define NOTE_FS7 2960 #define NOTE_G7 3136 #define NOTE_GS7 3322 #define NOTE_A7 3520 #define NOTE_AS7 3729 #define NOTE_B7 3951 #define NOTE_C8 4186 #define NOTE_CS8 4435 #define NOTE_D8 4699 #define NOTE_DS8 4978
    • Click the Upload button on Arduino IDE to compile and upload the code to Arduino Nano.
    Arduino IDE Upload Code
    • Listen to the song of the birds.

Modifying Arduino Nano Code

At present, we will be altering the code to perform the song "Jingle Bells".

We only require altering the values of two arrays: int melody[] and int noteDurations[].

/* * This Arduino Nano code was developed by newbiely.com * * This Arduino Nano code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/arduino-nano/arduino-nano-piezo-buzzer */ #include "pitches.h" #define BUZZER_PIN 2 // The Arduino Nano pin connected to the piezo buzzer's pin // notes in the melody: int melody[] = { NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_G5, NOTE_C5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_G5 }; // note durations: 4 = quarter note, 8 = eighth note, etc, also called tempo: int noteDurations[] = { 8, 8, 4, 8, 8, 4, 8, 8, 8, 8, 2, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 16, 16, 8, 8, 8, 8, 4, 4 }; void setup() { // iterate over the notes of the melody: int size = sizeof(noteDurations) / sizeof(int); for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < size; thisNote++) { // to calculate the note duration, take one second divided by the note type. //e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc. int noteDuration = 1000 / noteDurations[thisNote]; tone(BUZZER_PIN, melody[thisNote], noteDuration); // to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them. // The note's duration + 30% seems to work well: int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30; delay(pauseBetweenNotes); // stop the tone playing: noTone(BUZZER_PIN); } } void loop() { // no need to repeat the melody. }

※ NOTE THAT:

The code above utilizes the delay() function. This causes other code to be blocked during playing melody. To prevent this, the ezBuzzer library can be used instead. This library is specifically designed for buzzer use and allows for beeping or playing melodies without blocking other code.

Video Tutorial

Challenge Yourself

  • Employ a Piezo Buzzer to play your favorite song.
  • Utilize a motion sensor to create an alarm when someone approaches your valuable items. Refer to Arduino Nano - Motion Sensor for more information.

Function References