ESP8266 - DC Motor Limit Switch

In this ESP8266 tutorial, we are going to learn how to use ESP8266 to control DC motor by limit switch and L298N driver. In detail, we are going to learn:

Hardware Preparation

1×ESP8266 NodeMCU
1×Micro USB Cable
1×Limit Switch (KW12-3)
1×Limit Switch (V-156-1C25)
1×5V DC Motor
1×5V Power Adapter for 5V DC motor
1×DC Power Jack
1×L298N Motor Driver Module
1×Jumper Wires
1×(Optional) ESP8266 Screw Terminal Adapter

Or you can buy the following sensor kit:

1×DIYables Sensor Kit 30 types, 69 units
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Overview of DC Motor and Limit Switch

If you do not know about DC motor and limit switch (pinout, how it works, how to program ...), learn about them in the following tutorials:

Wiring Diagram

This tutorial provides the ESP8266 codes for two cases: One DC motor + one limit switch, One DC motor + two limit switches.

  • Wiring diagram between the DC motor and a limit switch
The wiring diagram between ESP8266 NodeMCU and DC motor and limit switch

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

See more in ESP8266's pinout and how to supply power to the ESP8266 and other components.

  • Wiring diagram between the DC motor and two limit switches
The wiring diagram between ESP8266 NodeMCU and DC motor and two limit switches

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

ESP8266 Code - Stop DC Motor by a Limit Switch

The below code make a DC motor spin infinitely and stop immediately when a limit switch is touched

/* * This ESP8266 NodeMCU code was developed by newbiely.com * * This ESP8266 NodeMCU code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/esp8266/esp8266-dc-motor-limit-switch */ #include <ezButton.h> #define PIN_ENA D5 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the EN1 pin L298N #define PIN_IN1 D6 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the IN1 pin L298N #define PIN_IN2 D7 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the IN2 pin L298N ezButton limitSwitch(D1); // create ezButton object for pin ESP8266 pin D1 void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); limitSwitch.setDebounceTime(50); // set debounce time to 50 milliseconds // initialize digital pins as outputs. pinMode(ENA_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN1_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN2_PIN, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(ENA_PIN, HIGH); // max speed digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins clockwise } void loop() { limitSwitch.loop(); // MUST call the loop() function first if (limitSwitch.isPressed()) { Serial.println(F("The limit switch: TOUCHED")); digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, LOW); // stop motor digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, LOW); // stop motor } }

Detailed Instructions

To get started with ESP8266 on Arduino IDE, follow these steps:

  • Check out the how to setup environment for ESP8266 on Arduino IDE tutorial if this is your first time using ESP8266.
  • Wire the components as shown in the diagram.
  • Connect the ESP8266 board to your computer using a USB cable.
  • Open Arduino IDE on your computer.
  • Choose the correct ESP8266 board, such as (e.g. NodeMCU 1.0 (ESP-12E Module)), and its respective COM port.
  • Connect ESP8266 to PC via USB cable
  • Open Arduino IDE, select the right board and port
  • Click to the Libraries icon on the left bar of the Arduino IDE.
  • Search “ezButton”, then find the button library by ESP8266GetStarted.com
  • Click Install button to install ezButton library.
ESP8266 NodeMCU button library
  • Copy the above code and open with Arduino IDE
  • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to ESP8266
  • If the wiring is correct, you will see the motor rotates clockwise direction.
  • Touch the limit switch
  • You will see the motor is stopped immediately
  • The result on Serial Monitor looks like below
COM6
Send
The limit switch: TOUCHED The DC motor is STOPPED The DC motor is STOPPED The DC motor is STOPPED The DC motor is STOPPED
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

Code Explanation

Read the line-by-line explanation in comment lines of code!

ESP8266 Code - Change Direction of DC Motor by a Limit Switch

The below code make a DC motor spin infinitely and change its direction when a limit switch is touched

/* * This ESP8266 NodeMCU code was developed by newbiely.com * * This ESP8266 NodeMCU code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/esp8266/esp8266-dc-motor-limit-switch */ #include <ezButton.h> #define DIRECTION_CCW -1 #define DIRECTION_CW 1 #define PIN_ENA D5 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the EN1 pin L298N #define PIN_IN1 D6 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the IN1 pin L298N #define PIN_IN2 D7 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the IN2 pin L298N ezButton limitSwitch(D1); // create ezButton object for pin ESP8266 pin D1 int direction = DIRECTION_CW; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); limitSwitch.setDebounceTime(50); // set debounce time to 50 milliseconds // initialize digital pins as outputs. pinMode(ENA_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN1_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN2_PIN, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(ENA_PIN, HIGH); // max speed digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins clockwise } void loop() { limitSwitch.loop(); // MUST call the loop() function first if (limitSwitch.isPressed()) { Serial.println(F("The limit switch: TOUCHED")); direction *= -1; // change direction Serial.print(F("The direction -> ")); if (direction == DIRECTION_CW) { Serial.println(F("CLOCKWISE")); digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins clockwise } else { Serial.println(F("ANTI-CLOCKWISE")); digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins anti-clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins anti-clockwise } } }

Detailed Instructions

  • Copy the above code and open with Arduino IDE
  • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to ESP8266
  • If the wiring is correct, you will see the motor spins in the clockwise direction.
  • Touch the limit switch
  • You will see the DC motor's direction is changed to the anti-clockwise
  • Touch the limit switch again
  • You will see the DC motor's direction is changed to clockwise
  • The result on Serial Monitor looks like below
COM6
Send
The limit switch: TOUCHED The direction -> ANTI-CLOCKWISE The limit switch: TOUCHED The direction -> CLOCKWISE
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

ESP8266 Code - Change Direction of DC Motor by two Limit Switches

The below code make a DC motor spin infinitely and change its direction when one of two limit switches is touched

/* * This ESP8266 NodeMCU code was developed by newbiely.com * * This ESP8266 NodeMCU code is made available for public use without any restriction * * For comprehensive instructions and wiring diagrams, please visit: * https://newbiely.com/tutorials/esp8266/esp8266-dc-motor-limit-switch */ #include <ezButton.h> #define DIRECTION_CCW -1 #define DIRECTION_CW 1 #define PIN_ENA D5 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the EN1 pin L298N #define PIN_IN1 D6 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the IN1 pin L298N #define PIN_IN2 D7 // The ESP8266 pin connected to the IN2 pin L298N ezButton limitSwitch_1(D1); // create ezButton object for pin ESP8266 pin D1 ezButton limitSwitch_2(D2); // create ezButton object for pin ESP8266 pin D2 int direction = DIRECTION_CW; int prev_direction = DIRECTION_CW; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); limitSwitch_1.setDebounceTime(50); // set debounce time to 50 milliseconds limitSwitch_2.setDebounceTime(50); // set debounce time to 50 milliseconds // initialize digital pins as outputs. pinMode(ENA_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN1_PIN, OUTPUT); pinMode(IN2_PIN, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(ENA_PIN, HIGH); // max speed digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins clockwise } void loop() { limitSwitch_1.loop(); // MUST call the loop() function first limitSwitch_2.loop(); // MUST call the loop() function first if (limitSwitch_1.isPressed()) { direction *= -1; // change direction Serial.println(F("The limit switch 1: TOUCHED")); } if (limitSwitch_2.isPressed()) { direction *= -1; // change direction Serial.println(F("The limit switch 2: TOUCHED")); } if (prev_direction != direction) { Serial.print(F("The direction -> ")); if (direction == DIRECTION_CW) { Serial.println(F("CLOCKWISE")); digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins clockwise } else { Serial.println(F("ANTI-CLOCKWISE")); digitalWrite(IN1_PIN, LOW); // control motor A spins anti-clockwise digitalWrite(IN2_PIN, HIGH); // control motor A spins anti-clockwise } prev_direction = direction; } }

Detailed Instructions

  • Click Upload button on Arduino IDE to upload code to ESP8266
  • If the wiring is correct, you will see the motor spins in the clockwise direction.
  • Touch the limit switch 1
  • You will see the DC motor's direction is changed to anti-clockwise
  • Touch the limit switch 2
  • You will see the DC motor's direction is changed to clockwise
  • The result on Serial Monitor looks like below
COM6
Send
The limit switch 1: TOUCHED The direction -> ANTI-CLOCKWISE The limit switch 2: TOUCHED The direction -> CLOCKWISE
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

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